Emmanuel Levinas says we can’t talk to God, only each other. When we care for others in words and deeds, we come as close as we can to God.
Emmanuel Levinas is popular among philosophers because “he introduces God into the scene without making so much ontological noise,” as Ryan Urbano puts it (p 75). In other words, Levinas lets us talk about God without talking about God. It’s true, but it’s not because he is shy about using the G—word.
For Levinas, God is experienced in the ethical encounter with the other. Religion is Levinas’ term for this ethical relationship. For Levinas, there is no direct relationship with the Divine.
The Divine can only be accessed through the human other to whom the self is infinitely responsible. (Urbano, p 51)
We know God when we act ethically toward another person. We do not keep God alive by trying to prove his existence, a waste of time. Everything I can ever know about God is experienced in caring for others.
Continue reading Emmanuel Levinas says we can’t talk to God, only each other
The Book of Job is one of the most puzzling books of the Hebrew Bible. If we take Yahweh’s speeches from the whirlwind seriously, then there is no humanly comprehensible reason for the suffering of innocents and the righteous. The good suffer, the bad flourish, and we must accept this without question. Does this mean that Job was right and God is wrong?
One way out of this puzzle, generally called the problem of theodicy (if God is all good, all powerful, and all knowing, then why do the innocent suffer?), is to read the Book of Job from the perspective of the New Testament. This is what G. K. Chesterton does, seeing the suffering of the most innocent and righteous of men as a preface to Christ.
Though God rewards Job at the Book’s conclusion with seven new sons and three new daughters even more beautiful than before, as well as doubling his flocks and oxen, most scholars agree that the section, 42:10-17 was an addition by later redactors to encourage the faithful. The Book really ends with Job despising himself for his arrogance in questioning God (42.6). Or at least that is one translation.
The patience of Job?
To read the Book of Job from the perspective of the New Testament is to miss what is so challenging about it. Job’s harsh criticism of God is not answered by God, at least not in any way the pious reader might expect. Says Job
The good and the guilty He destroys alike. If some scourge brings sudden death, He mocks the guiltless for their melting hearts; some land falls under a tyrant’s sway—He veils its judges’ faces, if not He, then who? (9:22-24)
Job goes on like this chapter after chapter. Whoever wrote about the patience of Job was crazy. Job wants to take God to court and find him guilty (9:32-10:5).
Continue reading What if Job was right and God is wrong?